Download A Concise Text-book of Organic Chemistry by C. G. Lyons, S. McLintock, Nora H. Lumb PDF

By C. G. Lyons, S. McLintock, Nora H. Lumb

A Concise Text-Book of natural Chemistry is a convenient advisor for chemistry scholars getting ready for complicated point certificate. the character of natural chemistry, in comparison with that of inorganic chemistry, is essentially the chemistry of carbon. The booklet makes a speciality of the preparations and alterations of the atoms contained in the carbon molecules. The molecular formulation of natural compounds are for that reason studied, together with alkanes and their derivatives referred to as aliphatic or fatty acids, in addition to the hydrocarbons of the benzene sequence and derivatives referred to as the fragrant compounds. The aliphatic amines as derivatives of ammonia caused by the substitution of the hydrogen atoms via alkyl teams are defined. The formulation for methane, even if at the present is handy for common reasons, is proven to be now not a real consultant of the particular association during which 4 H radicals are grouped round the carbon atom. Castor oil, linseed, and different drying oils also are tested by way of their glyceride (of different lengthy chain unsaturated acids) content material. Carbohydrates, divided as monosaccharides, polysaccharides, and glycosides, are mentioned as to their empirical composition. the various tools and reagents for synthesizing natural compounds are defined, utilizing the straightforward aliphatic natural compounds to illustrate. The fragrant sequence of natural compounds, corresponding to the benzene sequence of hydrocarbons, and the fragrant sulfonic acids, phenols, and ethers are then analyzed. This publication is appropriate for college kids of natural chemistry and for these getting ready for exams within the basic certificates of schooling and for the standard nationwide certificates. Readers relating to agricultural, clinical, pharmaceutical, and technological and technical classes can locate this consultant suitable.

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But some ethers absorb oxygen on standing, forming unstable ether peroxides whose composition has not been thoroughly established. (A possible representation of the composition of the peroxide of diethyl ether is 58 A CONCISE TEXT-BOOK O F O R G A N I C CHEMISTRY (CHg-CHOHO-OCHOH-CHgO. Ether peroxides accumulate in the least volatile fractions during distillation and may lead to dangerous explosions. ( 1 ) Reaction with hydriodic acid. Ethers are decomposed when heated with the constant boiling solution of hydriodic acid.

R O R ' + HI = ROH + Rl ( 2 ) Reaction with phosphorus pentachloride. Ethers are decomposed by heating with phosphorus pentachloride, but do not react with this substance in the cold. p. 36°C) with a characteristic smell. It is prepared from ethyl alcohol and concentrated sulphuric acid. If industrial methylated spirit is used the product {methylated ether) contains methyl ethyl ether and acetone as well as diethyl ether. T H E ALIPHATIC S U L P H U R COMPOUNDS The sulphur compounds corresponding to the alcohols are the thio-alcohols or mercaptans; the compounds corresponding to the ethers are the thio-ethers.

C 2 H 5 I + C^HsSNa = (C2H5)2S + N a l They are oxidized by concentrated nitric acid and by potassium permanganate to sulphones, R R \ R S / Thio-ether -> R \ SO2 / Sulphone amino and nitro compounds T H E A L I P H A T I C AMINES (FUNCTIONAL GROUPS —NHg; ) N H ; - ) N ) The ahphatic amines are derivatives of ammonia obtained by the replacement of the hydrogen atoms by alkyl groups. ,^ΝΗ (secondary ^\ amines), and R ' — Ν (tertiary amines). g.

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