By Mennatallah Ali
Style 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a prolonged, revolutionary metabolic ailment characterised by means of continual hyperglycemia. even though its major physiological abnormalities are insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion, the categorical underlying determinants of those metabolic defects stay doubtful. There are complicated interactions among genetic, epigenetic, environmental and behavioral components that give a contribution to the improvement of diabetes. Non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions were used for diabetic administration. over the last few years, study has began to specialise in using novel adjuvant medicinal drugs as antioxidants and anti inflammatory medications for greater administration, because it used to be published that either oxidative pressure and irritation play a serious function within the ailment pathogenesis. hence, the improvement of antidiabetic medications which can opposite insulin resistance is a possible healing goal. even supposing antidiabetic medicinal drugs should be potent in enhancing glycemic regulate, they don't seem to be powerful in completely combating the development of pancreatic ß-cells harm mediated by way of power hyperglycemia-induced decline in intracellular antioxidants. consequently, antioxidant and anti inflammatory treatment might be regarded as an accessory to the widely used oral antidiabetics
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Additional resources for A new approach in Type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment: Evaluation of the beneficial effect of L-cysteine in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus
Aldose reductase is found in tissues such as nerve, retina, lens, glomerulus and vascular cells. In many of these tissues, glucose uptake is mediated by insulin-independent GLUTs; intracellular glucose concentrations, therefore, rise in parallel with hyperglycemia (57). Several mechanisms include sorbitol-induced osmotic stress, increased cytosolic NADH/NAD+ and decreased cytosolic NADPH have been proposed to explain tissue damage resulted from this pathway (58). The most cited is an increase in redox stress, caused by the consumption of NADPH, a cofactor required to regenerate reduced glutathione (GSH), which is an important scavenger of ROS.
Metformin’s molecular effects appear to be at least in part mediated by adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), but it is unclear if this pathway represents the drug’s specific or unique target(160). AMPK activation determines a wide variety of physiological effects, including increased fatty acid oxidation and enhanced glucose uptake by skeletal muscle by increasing translocation of GLUT1 and insulin-sensitive glucose transporters, GLUT4, into the cell membrane (161). Administration of metformin to obese subjects was also found to increase levels of active GLP-1 after a glucose load, this phenomenon appears to occur through mechanisms other than DPP-4 inhibition; and may instead be due to direct stimulation of GLP-1 secretion or a reduction in DPP-4 secretion (160).
Diabetic patient must wear appropriate footwear. It should also be noted that poorly controlled patients may develop hyperglycemia during exercise, whereas patients treated with insulin and insulin secretagogues could develop hypoglycemia (153). The best form of exercise recommended to diabetic is a stepwise increase of aerobic exercises. There are several benefits from a regular exercise schedule. These include reduction of hypertension and weight, increase in bone density, improvement in insulin sensitivity, cardiovascular function and lipid profile (reduces serum triglycerides and increases HDLC), as well as improvement in the sense of physical and mental well-being and the overall quality of life (152).