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By Mark Sandle

Mark Sandle is Lecturer in Russian and East eu heritage at De Montfort University.; This publication is meant for undergraduate classes on twentieth century Soviet history/the chilly War/European history/Soviet studies/History of political thought/Marxism-Leninism. The Left.

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36 THE CRUCIBLES OF RUSSIAN SOCIALISM 5. Dagger (eds), Political ideologies and the democratic ideal (New York: HarperCollins, 1991), pp. 120–1. 6. Berki, Socialism, p. 27. 7. Malia, Alexander Herzen and the birth of Russian socialism, (New York: Universal Library, 1961), p. 110. 8. Berki, Socialism, p. 25. 9. Crick, Socialism, ch. 1. 10. Bauman, Socialism: the active utopia (London: Allen & Unwin, 1976), p. 60. 11. The best one volume overview of the varieties of socialism is Lichtheim, Socialism, chs 1–4.

On the theoretical plane, Lenin established the following points as the kernel of the Marxist view of the state. 93 complete abolition of the state can only be achieved after classes have been abolished by a socialist revolution which leads to the “withering away of the state”; the proletariat must be prepared for revolution by utilising the present state;94 Lenin reiterates Marxist orthodoxy. Under communism, the state will gradually wither away. In the transition period, the dictatorship of the proletariat would hold sway, in order to suppress the bourgeoisie and to organize and plan the development of the socialist economy.

P. 417. 104. , p. 418. 105. Lenin, State and revolution, p. 120. 106. ”, p. 412. 107. , p. 419. 108. Lenin, State and revolution, p. 30. 109. , p. 105. 110. ”, pp. 408–9 111. Lenin, State and revolution, p. 120. 112. , pp. 59–60. 113. ”, p. 409. 40 THE CRUCIBLES OF RUSSIAN SOCIALISM 114. Both can be found in Selected works, vol. 2. 115. Lenin, “The impending catastrophe and how to combat it” in Selected works, p. 269. 116. , p. 246. 117. Lenin, State and revolution, p. 120. 118. Lenin, “Can the Bolsheviks retain state power”, p.

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