By Edward S. Shapiro PhD
This well known practitioner consultant and textual content offers an efficient, problem-solving-based method of comparing and remediating educational abilities difficulties. best authority Edward S. Shapiro presents sensible ideas for operating with scholars throughout all grade degrees (K–12) who're being affected by examining, spelling, written language, or math. step by step directions are certain for assessing scholars' studying and their educational setting, utilizing the knowledge to layout tutorial ameliorations, and tracking pupil development. The study base for the process is accessibly summarized. The significant other workbook, to be had individually, includes perform routines and reproducible forms. New to This Edition*Incorporates the newest advances in evidence-based evaluate and instruction.*Shows how the author's strategy suits completely right into a reaction to intervention (RTI) model.*Chapter and prolonged case instance concentrating on RTI.*30 of the figures, tables, and types are new or revised.
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Additional resources for Academic Skills Problems: Direct Assessment and Intervention (Guilford School Practitioner)
This methodology also needs to be able to address most or all of the types of educational decisions identified by Salvia et al. (2007). , Blankenship, 1985; Deno, 1985; Gickling & Havertape, 1981; Howell & Nolet, 1999; Salvia & Hughes, 1990; Shapiro, 2004; Shapiro & Lentz, 1986). All of these models have in common the underlying assumption that one should test what one teaches. As such, the contents for the assessments employed for each model are based on the instructional curriculum. In contrast to the potential problem of poor overlap between the curriculum and the test in other forms of academic assessment, evaluation methods that are based on the curriculum offer direct evaluations of student performance on material that students are expected to acquire.
Once the hypothesis is validated, the data collected are summarized and a plan for remediation is developed. To provide baseline data, a statement indicating the student’s present level of achievement and functional performance as well as a list of goals and objectives for instruction are developed. Once the instructional plan is developed and implemented, the evaluation of that plan occurs in the final step of the model. A key to CBE is a recognition that the remediation of academic skills problems requires a systematic, formal problem-Â�solving process that examines the nature of the skills that students present.
Despite potential problems in curriculum–test overlap, individual norm-Â�referenced tests are still useful for deciding the relative standing of an individual within a peer group. Although this type of information is 14 A C A DEMIC S KILL S P ROBLEM S valuable in making eligibility decisions, however, it may have limited use in other types of assessment decisions. An important consideration in assessing academic skills is to determine how much progress students have made across time. This determination requires that periodic assessments be conducted.