Download Across the Ocean: Nine Essays on Indo-Mediterranean Trade by Federico De Romanis, Marco Maiuro PDF

By Federico De Romanis, Marco Maiuro

Across the Ocean comprises 9 essays, every one devoted to a key query within the historical past of the exchange family among the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean from Antiquity to the Early smooth interval: the function of the country within the pink Sea exchange, Roman coverage within the purple Sea, the functionality of Trajan s Canal, the pepper alternate, the pearl alternate, the Nabataean middlemen, using gold in old India, the consistent renewal of the Indian Ocean ports of alternate, and the increase and dying of the VOC."

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Sidebotham 1997, 388, suggesting the abandonment of the shorter route might have been due to a drop in the water table, but without supporting evidence. 45, quoted above. 21 Brun 2003, 201–2. 22 For the most recent synthesis on the routes across the Eastern Desert in the Roman period, see Sidebotham 2011, 125–74. 23 Sidebotham, Hense, and Nouwens 2008, 192–3. 24 ils 2483; Kennedy 1985; De Romanis 1996, 219–24; Bagnall, Bülow-Jacobsen, and Cuvigny 2001; Kennedy 1985, 330. 102–3. 120; Bagnall, Bülow-Jacobsen, and Cuvigny 2001; Cuvigny 2003c 356.

64 The third century evidently saw increased insecurity in the Eastern Desert in the face of incursions by the Blemmyes, a desert tribe from the south. By 279/280 the Blemmyes had taken Coptos, from where Probus then drove them out (sha Prob. 3; Zos. 1). They must have taken it again, since Diocletian recaptured it from them in 296. We do not know the chronology of the background to the capture of Coptos, but the abandonment of the route to Myos Hormos and the concentration of resources on the Berenice–Coptos route may well be an indication that these routes had become unsafe well before 279.

Lond. Lond. iv 1465 descr. ). -F. ), Paris 1809–1928). Modern work is represented by Bruyère 1966; Bietak 1975; Holladay 1982 and 1999ab; Redmount 1989 and 1995; Sonnabend 1999; and Cooper 2009. 10 The scholarly literature on the subject is growing: Posener 1938; Calderini 1940; Sijpesteijn 1963; Oertel 1964; Tuplin 1991; Redmount 1995; Mayerson 1996; De Romanis 2002; Aubert 2004a, 2004b, and 2013; Jördens 2007 and 2009; Trombley 2009, with a translation of documents from the Arabic period; Cooper 2009, with an interesting study of the landscape and archaeological remains of the canal in the Eastern Delta; and Sidebotham 2011, 179–82.

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