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By H. Schneider, A. L. Rosenberger (auth.), Marilyn A. Norconk, Alfred L. Rosenberger, Paul A. Garber (eds.)

This choice of 29 papers grew out of a symposium entitled "Setting the long run schedule for Neotropical Primates. " The symposium was once held on the division of Zoo­ logical learn, nationwide Zoological Park, Washington D. C. , on February 26-27, 1994, and was once subsidized by way of the Wenner-Gren beginning for Anthropological study, Smith­ sonian establishment, and acquaintances of the nationwide Zoo. We placed the symposium including goals: to honor Warren G. Kinzey for his contributions to the becoming box of platyrrhine reviews and to supply researchers who paintings within the Neotropics with the oppor­ tunity to debate fresh advancements, to spot parts of study that require extra examine, and particularly to aid advisor the subsequent new release of researchers. The symposium supplied the chance to acknowledge Warren as a mentor and col­ laborator to the contribution of the learn of platyrrhines. Contributions to the booklet have been increased to be able to supply a extra complete view of platyrrhine evolution and ecology, to stress the interdisciplinary nature of a lot of those reviews, and to excessive­ mild the critical position that New global monkeys play in advancing primatology. If this vol­ ume have been to require significant revisions after only one extra decade of analysis, that may be a becoming testomony to Warren's enthusiasm and his force to repeatedly replace the sector with new rules and strategies. Tributes to Warren and a listing of his guides were released in other places (Norconk, 1994, 1996; Rosenberger 1994, 1995).

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Whereas C. aurita and C. geojJroyi, C. penicillata and C. jacchus, has been for their increasing capacity to occupy highly seasonal forests, and as such overcoming the finest of filters. The ancestral Callithrix, evidently an incipient tree-gouger and gum feeder, was probably less adaptable to marginal or highly seasonal habitats than, such as, C. jacchus and C. penicillata, and therefore more susceptible to isolation than would be the case today. Given that Leontopithecus, Brachyteles, and, to a lesser extent, Callithrix exhibit a higher degree of habitat specialization, climatic fluctuations resulting in dynamic contraction and expansion cycles, affecting more seriously the interior of Brazil where cerrado is found today, would effectively result in a higher degree of divergence of the ancestral stocks of these three genera than would be the case for the more adaptable genera, Cebus, Alouatta and Callicebus.

Whether the Pleistocene refuges, such as those postulated by Kinzey (1982) have resulted in speciation and subspeciation or merely the distributions 40 A. B. Rylands et al. observed today is still, however, uncertain. A number of leading specialists argue that preQuaternary refuges rather than Pleistocene refuges are the cause of speciation patterns observed today (see, for example, Hershkovitz, 1969; Heyer and Maxson, 1982; Cracraft and Prum, 1988; Silva and Patton, 1993). 3) Rivers, Topography, and Habitat Specialization Haffer (1993 and earlier publications; see also Simpson and Haffer, 1978) discussed the role of rivers as barriers to dispersion and consequently in speciation.

It also extends north to the middle Rio Jequitinhonha in Minas Gerais. Rylands et al. (1988) presented evidence that C. p. personatus occupies a larger part of the north of Minas Gerais than was indicated by Hershkovitz (1990), extending west along both margins of the middle and upper Jequitinhonha, at least as far as the locality of Buenopolis. C. p. nigrifrons is the widest ranging of the subspecies, occurring throughout a large part of the state of Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo, north of the Rio Tiete, and east of the Rios Parana and Parnaiba (Kinzey, 1982; Hershkovitz, 1990).

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