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By N.C. Brady (Eds.)

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In the case of M . sativa, mycorrhizal plants grew and nodulated significantly better than nonmycorrhizal ones in unamended soil and at intermediate P additions. Higher doses eliminated the mycorrhizal effect on plant growth and nodulation and became supraoptimal for these processes. In the case of H . coronarium, mycorrhizal inoculation also significantly improved plant growth and nodulation at low phosphate additions. However, the response differed from that of M .

Meliloti cultures tested increased VAM infection in M . , 1978a; Azc6n-Aguilar and Barea, 1978). , 1978a). , 1979). All of these activities can affect the formation or effectiveness of VAM. The hormonal interactions in the rhizospheres of legumes seem more complicated as VAM fungi (Barea and Azc6n-Aguilar, 1980, 1982b) are also able to produce PH. These substances can be involved in the mycorrhizal effects. For example, Mosse (1962) found that VAM stimulated branching of infected roots (a typical hormonal effect), and Allen et al.

7 . Pesticides Relatively few studies have been concerned with effects of agricultural pesticides on the establishment and efficiency of mycorrhizal associations. Stunting of seedlings of the genus Citrus following methylbromide treatment of the soil was associated with an inhibition of VAM fungi by the fumigant (KleinSchmidt and Gerdemann, 1972). It is now accepted that pesticides, especially fungicides, are detrimental to mycorrhizal development. They reduce the infection and, in some cases, completely eliminate the plant growth stimulation by mycorrhizas (Safir, 1980).

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