Download Ancient Technology (Greenwood Guides to Historic Events of by John W. Humphrey PDF

By John W. Humphrey

Since precedent days, technological advances have elevated man's percentages for survival. From the practicality of a Roman aqueduct to the paintings of the written note, guy has consistently tailored his surroundings to satisfy his wishes, and to supply himself with sustenance, convenience, convenience, relaxation, a better caliber of residing, and a thriving tradition. This concise reference resource takes a better examine six technological occasions that considerably impacted the evolution of civilization, from the Palaeolithic age to the peak of the Roman Empire. As he touches at the universal parts of historic technology―energy, machines, mining, metallurgy, ceramics, agriculture, engineering, transportation, and communication―Humphrey asks questions imperative to figuring out the influence of historic instruments at the smooth international: What activates swap? What cultural traditions inhibit switch? What impression do those adjustments have on their societies and civilization?

Humphrey explores applied sciences as either actual instruments and as extensions of the human physique, starting with the discovery of the Greek alphabet and together with such accomplishments as early Neolithic plant cultivation, the discovery of coinage, the development of the Parthenon, and Rome's city water procedure. unique line drawings of instruments and machines make historical mechanics extra simply obtainable. basic records, word list, biographies, and a timeline relationship from the Palaeolithic age to the Roman Empire around out the paintings, making this a fantastic reference resource for figuring out the instruments of the traditional world.

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27 28 ANCIENT TECHNOLOGY Figure 4. Donkey mill After the fall vintage, the wine was fermented for half a year in large clay vats sunk into the ground (some of them apparently lined with pine resin to avoid leakage, popularly assumed to be the origin of modern retsina); it was then filtered into large clay amphorae for local sale or export, and served always mixed with water, which helps explain the Greeks’ ability at a symposium (literally, a ‘‘drinking party’’) to carry on clever and sensible philosophical discussion while consuming many cups of wine.

And treating cultivation, livestock, farm equipment, and so on, generally from the viewpoint of the absentee landlord. Technological monographs. ). Poetry. E. Archaeological Excavation Archaeology is perhaps the most productive source of information about the technologies of the ancients, since it is through archaeology that we can study the physical activities of the ancients through the built remains of their cities and villages, as well as obtain actual samples of the products created by them.

Hero of Alexandria was said to have used rope wrapped around a kind of ratcheted drum to draw down the beam-end. E. even greater pressure could be applied to the bag of pulp with the introduction of the screw, either to pull down the beam-end or, placed immediately above the fruit with a board between, to apply direct pressure (Figures 6 and 7). This last design, also attributed to Hero, would reappear fourteen centuries later in the early printing presses: just one of many ancient examples of a technique developed for one function that would later revolutionize another.

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