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Additional info for Applications of Geodesy to Engineering: Symposium No. 108, Stuttgart, Germany, May 13–17, 1991
H, qo. 01°/h, Uo. 001°/Vii, qo. = 30mgal/Jh )j 'Fig. 02°/h, Uo. 001°/ Vh, qo. = 30mgal/ Jh ) 36 100 100 01 I 0 75 ~ 50 ...... ~ I 0 ..... ~ ....... -g "" b ~ ........ "" 25 b a 75 01 ........ 150 300 time  600 Fig. 7: gyro drift (horizontal) 1: without rotation, 2: with rotation (see Fig. 5) I 0 ..... ~ ~ ....... CP) 1. 150 time  600 100 (C cb 38 ..... 75 25 c;50 CP) 13 ........ 25 0 0 Fig. 8: gyro drift (vertical) 1: without rotation, 2: with rotation (see Fig. 5) 50 at) 50 ....... 150 time  b 600 Fig.
Let us now consider some special cases. e. the original biases of the individual sensors transformed into the local horizontal frame. For the tilt error we easily obtain 6tjJ = -baN / gc and 6> = baE/ gc , whereas the azimuth error is given by 61} = -baE sin >/(gc cos >c) ~ -6> tan > . (2) Assume now that there are no errors in the measurement of the gravity vector, but that the gyro errors caused the computed earth rate vector to be in error, such that Wc = w + 6g or wf = (bgE,w cos > + bgN,w sin > + bgz ) .
The azimuth is only slightly improved during the alignment interval and has, except for a system with a very low noise level, not reached its steady state at the end of the interval. Even for gyros with a small noise level and a high turn-on repeatability of the accelerometer bias at the end of the alignment interval the azimuth error amounts several arcmin, which is of course not sufficient for high precision applications. e. their initial covariances are only slightly improved during the alignment interval.