Download Applications of Geodesy to Engineering: Symposium No. 108, by Erik W. Grafarend (auth.), Klaus Linkwitz, Viktor Eisele, PDF

By Erik W. Grafarend (auth.), Klaus Linkwitz, Viktor Eisele, Hans-Joachim Mönicke (eds.)

Accuracy necessities of fractions of a millimeter for the location of beam-guiding magnets in synchrotons, video display- ing of fast sub-seatunnelling with lengths exceeding 25 km, the development of tremendous lengthy bridges of suspension or "cast-and push"-type, but additionally geometrical commercial quality controls and robotic calibration in genuine time, or even the research of prestressed cable nets, are few examples of thechallenging new initiatives tough responses from the trendy engineering-geodesist. during this quantity, a basic view of Engineering Geologyis provided, its state-of-the-art and updated information regarding fresh medical projects, goals and techniques. The contributions concentrate on Theoretical features, suggestions of Measurements, ideas of knowledge Processing and Computing, studies approximately chosen finished tasks, exact projects, e.g. Realtime Positioning and Navigation, commercial Managements,Image Processing. but in addition the position of geo- desists in collaboration with civil and mechanical engineers, technical designers and designers is printed. As a reference e-book, this quantity may be important for researchers, scholars and practitioners in Engineering Geodesy and neighbouring disciplines.

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Additional info for Applications of Geodesy to Engineering: Symposium No. 108, Stuttgart, Germany, May 13–17, 1991

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H, qo. 01°/h, Uo. 001°/Vii, qo. = 30mgal/Jh )j 'Fig. 02°/h, Uo. 001°/ Vh, qo. = 30mgal/ Jh ) 36 100 100 01 I 0 75 ~ 50 ...... ~ I 0 ..... ~ ....... -g "" b ~ ........ "" 25 b a 75 01 ........ 150 300 time [8] 600 Fig. 7: gyro drift (horizontal) 1: without rotation, 2: with rotation (see Fig. 5) I 0 ..... ~ ~ ....... CP) 1. 150 time [8] 600 100 (C cb 38 ..... 75 25 c;50 CP) 13 ........ 25 0 0 Fig. 8: gyro drift (vertical) 1: without rotation, 2: with rotation (see Fig. 5) 50 at) 50 ....... 150 time [8] b 600 Fig.

Let us now consider some special cases. e. the original biases of the individual sensors transformed into the local horizontal frame. For the tilt error we easily obtain 6tjJ = -baN / gc and 6 = baE/ gc , whereas the azimuth error is given by 61} = -baE sin /(gc cos c) ~ -6 tan . (2) Assume now that there are no errors in the measurement of the gravity vector, but that the gyro errors caused the computed earth rate vector to be in error, such that Wc = w + 6g or wf = (bgE,w cos + bgN,w sin + bgz ) .

The azimuth is only slightly improved during the alignment interval and has, except for a system with a very low noise level, not reached its steady state at the end of the interval. Even for gyros with a small noise level and a high turn-on repeatability of the accelerometer bias at the end of the alignment interval the azimuth error amounts several arcmin, which is of course not sufficient for high precision applications. e. their initial covariances are only slightly improved during the alignment interval.

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