By Robert A. Samson (auth.), J. E. Smith (eds.)
The genus Aspergillus has a global distribution and is likely one of the commonest of all teams of fungi. they're most likely the best contami nants of ordinary and man-made natural items, and some species could cause infections in guy and animals. The aspergilli also are the most vital mycotoxin-producing teams of fungi while transforming into as contaminants of cereals, oil seeds, and different meals. now not all aspergilli are seen as problematical contaminants, although, as numerous species have had their metabolic functions harnessed for advertisement use. The aspergilli have lengthy been linked within the a ways East with the koji level of a number of foodstuff fermentations, relatively soy sauce and miso, and consequently as a resource of necessary enzymes. the facility of those fungi to provide numerous natural acids, specifically citric acid, has created significant commercial complexes all over the world. conventional tools of pressure increase ment were widely studied with the economic traces, whereas extra lately, recombinant DNA expertise has been utilized to the aspergilli with emphasis on heterologous protein creation. In compiling this ebook, i've been lucky to have the total enthu siastic involvement of the authors, and to them I expand my very thankful thank you for as a rule being on time and for generating such readable and authoritative chapters. jointly, we are hoping that our efforts will advance the medical realizing of this fascinating staff of filamentous fungi and additional their use within the box of biotechnology.
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Extra info for Aspergillus
A. sparsus Group Raper Be Fennell) This section includes five species: A. sparsus, A. biplanus, A. diversus, A. funiculosus, and A. gorakhpurensis Kamal & Bhargava. 7. Subgenus Stilbothamnium (Hennings) Samson Be Seifert This subgenus was established by Samson and Seifert (1985) for Aspergillus species with prominent synnematous taxa such as A. togoensis (= Stilbothaminium nudipes) (Roquebert and Nicot, 1985). Species that are (sub)tropical occur on seeds and are similar to members of Section Flavi and could be significant mycotoxin producers.
The author thanks Drs. J. P. Latge, Helene Girardin, S. Petersen, Maren Klich, and Ed Mullaney for including some new and partly unpublished data in this chapter. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. , 1980, Revision of the Black Aspergillus Species, Dissertation, University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. TAXONOMY-CURRENT CONCEPTS OF ASPERGILLUS SYSTEMATICS Bothast, R. , and Fennell, D. , 1974, A medium for rapid identification and enumeration of Aspergillus fiavus and related organisms, Mycologia 66:365-369.
A mixture of 30 g cooked soybean grits, 30 g roasted wheat, and 40 ml water was then inoculated with a pure culture of a koji mold strain. This mixture was incubated for 3 days at 30°C. A 10-g sample of the koji thus obtained was extracted with water. After filtration, the extract was used as the enzyme solution for the protease assay. The koji homogenate was used for the glutaminase assay. In most cases, the activities of both protease and glutaminase were between those of the parents or lower.