By H.A. Kiehne
This sensible reference is still the main accomplished consultant to the basic theories, options, and techniques used for battery operation and layout. It comprises new and revised chapters concentrating on the protection, functionality, caliber, and enhancement of varied batteries and battery platforms. From car, electrochemical, and high-energy functions to process implementation, choice, and standardization, the second one variation offers specialist discussions on electrochemical strength garage, some great benefits of battery-powered traction, the disposal and recycling of used batteries, probability prevention, and the chemistry and physics of lithium fundamental batteries.
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Extra resources for Battery Technology Handbook, Second Edition (Electrical and Computer Engineering)
DS or DH À DG ¼ T ? DS ð4Þ with T: temperature in K. The difference between DH and DG, the product T ? DS, is called reversible heat effect. It represents the heat exchange with the surroundings when the process occurs ‘reversibly’, which means that all equilibria are balanced. T ? DS can be positive or negative. In the ﬁrst case additional energy is generated by cooling of the environment (Peltier or heat pump effect). Otherwise, T ? DS contributes additional heat (cf. 1). ; n ? F means the amount of electrical charge connected with the reaction ð1 ?
7 In such a battery, a carbon electrode that forms layers and allows intercalation of Li ions is combined with a positive electrode of a metal oxide that also intercalates the small Liþ ions into a layered structure (mainly Lix CO2 , Lix NiO2 , or Lix Mn2 O4 ). e. the lithium-ﬁlled material characterizes the discharged state of the positive electrode, and the Liþ ions compensate for a corresponding reduction of the metal ions ðMe4þ þ x ? e ) Með4 xÞþ Þ. The (simpliﬁed) cell reaction is Charging?
Thermodynamic parameters describe the fundamental values of a battery, like the equilibrium voltage and the storage capability. 1. Column 7 shows the ‘nominal voltage’, which approximates the value given by Eq. (5) (cf. 1). Thermodynamic quantities like DH and DG depend on the concentrations (or more accurately activities) of the reacting components, as far as these components are dissolved. The corresponding relation is X h i i X h ji ji ln ðai Þ À ln ðai Þ ð6Þ DG ¼ DGs þ R ? T ? prod Copyright © 2003 by Expert Verlag.