By G. Grassi (auth.), A. V. Bridgwater, G. Grassi (eds.)
Biomass pyrolysis has been practised for hundreds of years within the manufacture of charcoal for and rest. merely within the final twenty years, notwithstanding, has realization focussed on a greater figuring out of the technology and expertise, with the ensuing merits of higher designed and regulated methods that provide excessive yields of liquid items. those beverages, or 'bio-oil' because it is observed, can be utilized in numerous methods: -combustion to exchange traditional gas oil in boilers, method gear resembling kilns and in fuel generators for energy iteration; -upgrading through hydrotreating or with zeolites to gas, diesel and different hydrocarbon fuels, of chemical substances; --extraction and upgrading to gas ingredients and chemical specialities. Any charcoal produced is also utilised to shape char- water slurries, analogous to coal-water slurries, or bioi-oil slurries that could be used as liquid fuels in lots of combustion purposes. a bunch of specialists was once organize within the EC strength from Biomass programme to judge the prestige and possibilities for deriving worthwhile liquid items from biomass pyrolysis. This publication is a document in their findings and conclusions. It varieties an authoritative advisor to the big variety of applied sciences hired in biomass pyrolysis, and product upgrading, utilisation and characterisation. techniques and conclusions are incorporated to spot promising components of study and improvement that may be of worth to researchers, planners and corporations in the course of the world.
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Extra info for Biomass Pyrolysis Liquids Upgrading and Utilization
Shafizadeh et al. Academic Press, New York, 1976, p. 159. 2. Knight, J. , Gorton, C. , Kovac, R. , Elston, L. W. & Hurst, D. , Oil production via entrained flow pyrolysis of biomass. In Proc. 13th Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Contractors' Meeting, Arlington, Virginia, 27-29 Oct. 1981, p. 475. 3. Knight, J. , Gorton, C. , Kovac, R. J. & Elston, L. , Entrained flow pyrolysis of biomass. In Proc. 250. 4. Knight, J. , Gorton, C. W. & Kovac, R. , Entrained flow pyrolysis of biomass. In Proc. 15th Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Contractors' Meeting, Atlanta, Georgia, 16-17 March 1983, p.
Table 16 GTRI product yields (Modified Reactor) Run no. Temperature, °C Yields, % wt (dry ash-free feed) Oil Char Total gas· • By difference. 2-11/0 2-12/0 3-17 3-18 3-19 501 524 499 504 500 48·1 7·6 44·3 53·8 8·4 37·8 52·1 10·0 37·9 60·0 54·9 12·1 21·2 27·9 23·9 Review of Biomass Pyrolysis Technologies 47 Table 17 Typical bio-oil analysis from GTRI Elemental analysis % wt (wet basis) C H N S a H/C ratio OIC ratio Moisture, % wt Ash, %wt Char content, % wt Viscosity, cp at 60°C HHV,MJ/kg Density, g/cm 3 39·5 7·5 <0·1 52·6 2·28 1·00 29·0 0·2 27-31 10 24·3 1·23 Problems include: -accumulation of tarry material in the first stages of the air-cooled condenser; -design of high-temperature bio-oil cooler/condenser to avoid water condensation; -lack of operational experience on recycled product gas for reactor heating.
593. Graham, R. , Freel, B. A. & Bergougnou, M. , The production of pyrolytic liquids, gas and char from wood and cellulose by fast pyrolysis. In Research in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion, Phoenix, Arizona, USA, April 1988, ed. A. V. Bridgwater & J. L. Kuester. Elsevier Applied Science, London and New York, 1988, p. 629. 3 Fast entrained-flow pyrolysis for liquids Example: Georgia Tech. Research Institute, USA This project was initiated in 1980 with the support from the US Department of Energy (USDoE).