By Jørgen Stenersen
Stenerson (ecotoxicology, U. of Oslo, Norway) brings jointly observations from around the organic sciences which will produce a textbook introducing the modes of motion of insecticides on the objective web site and their uptake, distribution, and degradation within the ambient surroundings. Encouraging scholars to refer to appropriate textbooks in the course of their examining of this paintings for a extra entire knowing, he presents chapters on pesticide interference with natural methods, particular enzyme inhibitors, interference with nerve sign transduction, insecticides that act as sign molecules, translocation and degradation of insecticides, resistance to insecticides, and insecticides as environmental risks.
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Compounds that are regarded as very hazardous for health or the environment. Very often, these substances have already been superseded and do not have any patent protection. html at the time of this writing. The year of marketing or patenting has been added. All substances are older than 30 years. Many of them are already in the list of superseded pesticides according to The Pesticide Manual (1994 or later) and are therefore of less interest today. Dirty-Dozen List Found on the Internet Substance Aldicarb Aldrin Amitrol Binapacryl Camphechlor Chlordane Chlordimeform Chlorobenzilate Chlorpropham DBCP1 DDT Dieldrin Dinoseb EDB2 Endrin Ethylene oxide Fluoroacetamide Heptachlor Hexachlorbenzene Hexachlorocyclohexane (mixed isomers) Isobenzan Lindane Mercury compounds Methamidophos ©2004 by Jørgen Stenersen Year of Marketing/Patenting 1965 1948 1955 1960 1947 1945 1966 1952 1951 1955 1942 1948 1945 1946 1951 1935 1955 1951 1945 1940 1957 1942 ?
The toxicant may react with many different types of biomolecules. It may be detoxiﬁed or need to be transformed to other molecules before reacting with the target biomolecule. 1 A hypothetical example of the effects on eight individuals of a toxicant at different doses. 3 Dose and response The sensitivity of the individuals in a group is different due to genetic heterogenicity as well as difference in sex, age, earlier exposure, etc. Therefore, if the effect of a toxicant is plotted against the dose, every individual will get a curve that is more or less different from those of other individuals.
However, quite a few substances can be oxidized or reduced by one-electron transfer, and reactive intermediates can be formed. Oxygen is very often involved in such reactions. The classical example of a free radical-producing poison is the herbicide paraquat, which steals an electron from the electron transport chain in mitochondria or chloroplasts and delivers it to molecular oxygen. The superoxide anion produced may react with hydrogen superoxide in a reaction called the Fenton reaction, producing hydroxyl radicals.