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By J. Aehlert (Auth.)

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These relations are shown in the accompanying formulas. I CH II HCOCHa HCOH I I CH Ο HOCH I HCOH I HC H,COH Methyl glucopyranoside I CH2 CH II HC— Pyran ! CH HCOCH3 ο HCOH II ο HOCH I HC CH ο I ι II I CH HC j J I HHCOH 2C O H Methyl Furan glucofuranoside T h e sugars related to p y r a n are known as pyranoses, a n d the corresponding glycosides as pyranosides. Those with furan rings are furanoses and furanosides, respectively. Although absolute methods are available for the establishment of the ring structures of the glycosides, t h e corresponding methods for the sugars are indirect.

A . , n o . 1 (1938). T h e t e r m " a n o m e r s " o r i g i n a t e d w i t h the latter workers. 27 C . S . H u d s o n , / . Am. Chem. Soc, 60, 1537 (1938). T h e H a w o r t h - t y p e f o r m u l a s w h i c h are g i v e n h a v e b e e n t u r n e d o v e r 180° i n s p a c e t o b e i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h t h e formulas as written in the present work. See previous discussion. 5(5 CHEMISTRY OP THE CARBOHYDRATES F o r t h e p y r a n o s i d e s of t h e D - a l d o h e x o s e s a n d h i g h e r - c a r b o n s u g a r s of t h e D - s e r i e s , c a r b o n a t o m 6 is w r i t t e n a s p r o j e c t i n g a b o v e t h e p y r a n o s e r i n g w h e n w r i t t e n a s a b o v e ; for t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g d e r i v a t i v e s of t h e L - s e r i e s , c a r b o n a t o m 6 l i e s b e l o w t h e p y r a n o s e r i n g (see d i s c u s s i o n e a r l i e r in t h i s c h a p t e r ) .

H o m o m o r p h o u s S e r i e s of P y r a n o s e s a n d F u r a n o s e s n-Idose type X = — H , L-Xylose X = — C H 2O H , D - I d o s e χ » — C H 3 , 6-Deaoxy-D-idose D-Gulose type X = — H , L-Lyxose X - — C H 2 O H , D -Gulose X « — C H 3 , 6-Desoxy-D-gulose f D-Glueo-D-tdoheptose X = — C H O H — C H 2OH/ h-Ido-O-idoheptose D-GIUCO-Dgido-heptosc X = — C H O H — C H 2O H ,< L-ldo-D-gulo~ heptose Χ H Η OH OH X D-Glucose type X = — Η , η-Xylose X = —CH2OH, D - G l u c o s e X = — C H 3, D - I s o r h a m n o s e X - ÎL-Gala-Dgluco-heptoee —CHOH-CH2OH, D-Altro-Dgluco-heptoBe D-Mannose t y p e X = — H , D-Lyxose X = —CH2OH, D - M a n n o s e X = — C H 3, D - R h a m n o s e fo-Altro-Dmanno-hepX « — C H O H — C H 2O H , { t o s e L-Gala-Dmanno-heptose 58 CHEMISTRY OF THE CARBOHYDRATES * Ί £ H > ° OH " OH OH un ?

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