By Hans Bielenstein
Overlaying the interval from the institution of Sui to the autumn of Southern Sung, this reference paintings for the 1st time provides an entire and very easily arrranged assessment of China’s diplomatic and exchange kinfolk with its significant and minor Asian neighbours: continental South Asia and the islands, Japan, Korea, Northeast Asia, Tibet, imperative Asia, West Asia, the center East, and the Hsia, Liao, and Chin States. Basing himself on his yearlong learn of chinese language offical histories and historic compendia, the writer deals a wealth of unique details - in translation - on issues comparable to the products exchanged, the negotiations for peace and alliances, precise missions required through diplomatic etiquette, international requests for marriage with chinese language princesses, and so on. designated emphasis is given to the that means of the so-called “tribute missions”, actually a disguised kind of alternate.
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Additional resources for Diplomacy And Trade In The Chinese World, 589-1276 (Handbuch Der Orientalistik. Vierte Abteilung, China.) (Handbook of Oriental Studies Handbuch Der Orientalistik)
24, 1266, and presented regional objects (Sung shih 46:6a). 392. ) of 1272, the Southern Sung presented horse trappings to Ch’en Jih-ching, who had abdicated in 1258,79 and his son and sucessor Ch’en Wei-huang (Sung shih 46:21b; 488:18b). In the 6th month (June/July) of 1273, the Annam State presented regional objects, for which it received 500 ounces of gold and 500 bolts of silk (Sung shih 46:26a). All rulers of Chiao-chih/Annam had Chinese or Chinese-style names. The Chinese sources refer to their own rulers from T’ang through Sung by their temple names,80 while they condescendingly call the rulers of Chiao-chih/Annam and other foreign countries by their given names.
10, 1087, envoys offered leggings of rhinoceros hide, for which the Sung paid 2,600 strings of copper cash (Sung shih 15:15b, 17a, 19b; 17:17a; 489:9b; Sung hui-yao kao 8116:11b-13a). ) of 1092, Champa envoys offered gifts and proposed a joint attack on Chiao-chih. This was rejected by the Sung court. 14, the chief envoy was appointed to a nominal Chinese office (Sung shih17:18b; 469:10a; Sung hui-yao kao 8116:13a; Wen-hsien t’ung-k’ao 332:17b).
Of 1261, the Annam State presented two elephants (Sung shih 44:10a; 488:18b). On July 13, 1262, a letter from Ch’en Jih-ching was presented to Southern Sung. He was appointed Acting Grand Master, Military Commissioner of the non-existant Army Which Quiets the Sea, Acting Grand Commandant, Grandee Secretary, and Supreme Pillar of State, recognized as Great King of the Annam State, and presented with a golden belt, [porcelain] vessels, silk, and horse trappings (Sung shih 435:12b, 488:18b). 24, 1266, and presented regional objects (Sung shih 46:6a).