By Pami Aalto
This book is the 1st accomplished learn of ways and why the eu Union has enlarged to turn into northern Europe’s major strength. Pami Aalto offers a brand new method of the under-theorized box of ecu international coverage reviews, exhibiting how, considering 1990, the ecu has enlarged to incorporate Finland, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland, and likewise included the previous East Germany. He additionally examines how this northern growth has led the ecu to mirror on family with Russia and its north-western areas. This specific examine comprises: a clean method of the under-theorized box of european overseas coverage key empirical fabric, together with enormous quantities of files, interviews and box experiments in-depth case reviews of kin among the european, Nordic states, Baltic states and Russia with its north-western areas. this is often crucial studying for all scholars of ecu politics, Russian stories and diplomacy.
Read or Download European Union and the Making of a Wider Northern Europe (Routledge Advances in European Politics) PDF
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Additional resources for European Union and the Making of a Wider Northern Europe (Routledge Advances in European Politics)
However, without any doubt, the most important reason for Russia’s interest is the presence of large Russophone minorities in Estonia and Latvia. The citizenship and linguistic rights of these internally very heterogeneous Russian-speaking groups have been a source of controversy. In both Estonia DQG /DWYLD WKH 5XVVRSKRQHV FRQVWLWXWH URXJKO\ RQHWKLUG RI WKH SRSXODWLRQ with the regaining of independence, most of them were made non-citizens,1 and subsequently about 100,000 people in Estonia opted for Russian citizenship.
These projects have been promoted most forcibly by the north German Länder, and they primarily fall into the category of ‘low’ politics. They have therefore admittedly failed to form very high-ranking priorities for German diplomacy on the whole (see below). Thus, overall, one must say that, concerning WKHGHYHORSPHQWRIWKH(8¶VVXEMHFWLYLW\LQQRUWKHUQ(XURSH*HUPDQUHXQL¿FDtion remained a relatively inconclusive event (cf. Mouritzen 1996c: 262). It is true WKDWZLWKWKHUHXQL¿FDWLRQ*HUPDQ\EHFDPHD(XURSHDQJUHDWSRZHUDJDLQEXWLQ a stark contradistinction to Bismarck’s era and the era between the World Wars, this took place in the mediating framework of supranational integration within the EU.
These long-lasting Danish perceptions helped Norden to remain the main regional project in northern Europe until the turn of the 1990s. It is illustrative of Denmark’s balancing act between European integration and Norden2 to take a look at how both the ‘yes’ and ‘no’ camps in the 1972 Danish accession referendum accepted that Norden should in all conditions constitute an important element of Danish identity and interests. In the referendum and afterwards, the ‘yes’ side argued that Norden could not pose a real alternative to the promotion of Danish economic interests in ‘Europe’, which are particularly strong in the agricultural sector and especially towards the British Isles where a ODUJHSDUWRI'DQLVKDJULFXOWXUDOH[SRUWVJR+DQVHQ±FI,QJHEULWVHQ 1998).