By Timothy H. Goldsmith (auth.), Dr. Doekele Gerben Stavenga, Dr. Roger Clayton Hardie (eds.)
The papers released during this quantity are the culmination of a symposium held in Regensburg in April 1987. The assembly was once held to com memorate most vital occasions within the improvement of com pound eye learn. In chronological order those are to begin with, Sigmund Exner's seminal monograph at the body structure of compound eyes of crustaceans and bugs, which was once first released in Vienna in 1891, and is now presently to seem for the 1st time within the English translation [Exner, S. (1989) The body structure of the Compound Eyes of bugs and Crustaceans. Springer Berlin Heidelberg big apple Tokyo]. Secondly, the assembly used to be additionally held in honour of Professor Hansjochem Autrum's eightieth birthday. Professor Autrum, who's justly stated as one of many pioneers of recent compound eye study, attended the assembly because the visitor of honour. according to those ancient events, it's been our goal during this quantity to give a finished selection of brief stories overlaying the foremost features of compound eye examine. while the main updated advancements were incorporated in each box from optics, via photochemistry, phototransduction, integrative procedures and behaviour, an try out has additionally been made to supply a historic perspective.
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Extra info for Facets of Vision
Hodierna's work certainly deserves more attention because he made remarkably accurate observations for the time and he also presented the first theory of compound eye function, which in fact pre-empted Muller's mosaic theory. "Each little-eye possesses a cornea tunica, followed inwards by a crystalline body and then a dark layer. " (translated into English from the German translation of Seitz 1971). Beautiful and famous illustrations of compound eyes include those by Robert Hooke (1665) and Jan Swammerdam (1737), but their insight into the function of the eyes was no more advanced than that ofHodierna.
Exceptions to this are the amphipods and the lower Crustacea where the cornea is not facetted and thus oflittle optical significance. The opposite case is seen in Limulus and some beetles, where the corneal lenses bulge into the eye as a substitute for the crystalline cones that are lacking in these animals. The number of cells that form the crystalline cone is four in insects and crustaceans, but exceptions occur in the latter group. Especially in insects, these cells are called "Semper cells".
Ursula Gallwitz skilfully severed the ganglia, and indeed the monophasic response was found in the remaining retina (Autrum and Gallwitz 1951, Fig. 6). A second demonstration was provided by studying the development of eyes of dragonflies. In the succession of the larval instars, the ganglia move from a remote to a close position towards the retina. Simultaneously, the ERG changes from a monophasic one to the polyphasic type with strongly expressed transients. Recently, a paper was published by Coombe (1986) giving proof that in Drosophila the transients of the ERG are due to the response of the lamina L 1 and L2 cells: In a mutant with degenerating L 1 and L2 cells the transients vanish (Fig.