Download Fundamental Aliphatic Chemistry. Organic Chemistry for by P. W. G. Smith and A. R. Tatchell (Auth.) PDF

By P. W. G. Smith and A. R. Tatchell (Auth.)

Show description

Read or Download Fundamental Aliphatic Chemistry. Organic Chemistry for General Degree Students PDF

Best organic books

The Biogeochemistry of Submerged Soils

Submerged soils and the wetlands they aid are of massive functional value: in worldwide aspect cycles, as centres of biodiversity, in worldwide foodstuff construction. also they are uniquely fascinating scientifically as a result of their strange biogeochemistry and the variations of vegetation and microbes to it.

Metal-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions

During this moment, thoroughly revised and enlarged variation, Francois Diederich is joined through Armin de Meijere in bringing jointly in finished volumes every little thing of significance regarding C-C and C-N cross-coupling reactions. the variety of purposes coated extends from the synthesis of complicated usual fabrics through supramolecular chemistry correct as much as fabrics technological know-how.

Organic Chemistry: An Intermediate Text, Second Edition

Perfect in case you have formerly reviews natural chemistry yet now not in nice intensity and with little publicity to natural chemistry in a proper experience. this article goals to bridge the distance among introductory-level guide and extra complex graduate-level texts, reviewing the fundamentals in addition to providing the extra complicated rules which are presently of value in natural chemistry.

Additional info for Fundamental Aliphatic Chemistry. Organic Chemistry for General Degree Students

Example text

ROH+HX > RX+ H 2 0 The conditions required depend on the hydrogen halide used, the order of reactivity being HI > HBr > HC1. Thus alkyl iodides are prepared by refluxing the alcohol with an excess of constant boiling hydriodic acid. Alkyl bromides are prepared in a similar way using hydrobromic acid with sulphuric acid as a catalyst; a suitable alternative procedure is to heat the alcohol with a mixture of concentrated aqueous sodium bromide and sulphuric acid. NaBr+H 2 S0 4 > HBr+NaHS0 4 ROH+HBr J ?

RX+CH 3 CH 2 0? ethoxide ion > ROCH2CH3+ :X© Replacement of the halogen by a carboxylate ion gives an ester. This can be effected either by heating the alkyl halide with a solution of the potassium salt of a carboxylic acid in an excess of the acid or more readily by warming with the silver salt in alcohol. g. o II Θ RX+CH3CO: acetate ion >CH 3 C0 2 R+:X e alkyl acetate HALOGEN DERIVATIVES OF ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS 57 For those alkyl halides which have a marked tendency to form olefins during alkaline hydrolysis, the hydrolysis of the ester (p.

A further important reaction of alkyl halides is their conversion into olefins, which are unsaturated hydrocarbons. This illustrates another class of organic reactions termed the elimination reaction (E), which in this case involves the elimination from the alkyl halide molecule of a halide ion together with a proton attached to the ß-carbon atom, thereby forming a double bond between the a- and ß-carbon atoms as the following example shows. g. the ethoxide Θ ion, CH 3 CH 2 0:) powerful enough to detach the ß-hydrogen atom (p.

Download PDF sample

Rated 4.94 of 5 – based on 41 votes

About the Author

admin