Download Grasses and Grassland Ecology (Oxford Biology) by David J. Gibson PDF

By David J. Gibson

Grasslands, specifically controlled pastures and rangelands, are common, masking nearly forty% (52 million km?) of the Earth's land floor. they're ruled via individuals of the Poaceae - the fourth biggest plant relations with over 7,500 species, and in addition the main frequent. Grasslands represent a massive biome on all continents other than Antarctica and in addition characterize crucial foodstuff crop on the earth with corn, wheat, maize, rice and millet accounting for almost all of our agricultural output.Grasses and Grassland Ecology presents an ecologically oriented advent to this influential workforce of vegetation, summarizing the latest clinical learn in ecology and agriculture within the context of the older, vintage literature. Ten chapters disguise the morphology, anatomy, body structure and systematics of grasses, their inhabitants, group and environment ecology, their international distribution, and the consequences of disturbance and grassland management.This entire and available textbook is appropriate for graduate point scholars in addition to specialist researchers within the fields of plant ecology, rangeland technology, crop technology, and agriculture.

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Recent analyses (GPWG 2001; Hodkinson et al. 2007a and references therein; Michelangeli et al. 2003) place the Joinvilleaceae and Ecdeiocoleaceae as sister groups and the closest living relatives to the grasses, with an obscure and uncertain relationship to the Restionales and Cyperales (Fig. 1). The gain of multicellular microhairs is a structural synapomorphy supporting the sister relationship between the Joinvilliaceae and the grasses (Michelangeli et al. 2003). 4 kb inversion in the chloroplast DNA genome, and the occurrence of long–short cell alternations in files of cells adjacent to stomatal files in the leaf epidermis, are synapomorphies previously used to join this clade (Kellogg 2000), which have recently been shown to join the Joinvilliaceae–grass clade with the Ecdeiocoleaceae (a family of two genera, Ecdeiocolea and Georgeantha, often included in the Restoniaceae) (Michelangeli et al.

He recognized 13 tribes within the Panicoideae and Festucoideae (roughly equivalent to the Pooideae). His classification scheme formed the basis for numerous later treatments of the grasses including that of Bentham and Hooker (1883) and Bews’s (1929, see Chapter 1) synopsis of the world’s grasses. Hitchcock and Chase used Bentham’s scheme in their 1935 and 1950 classification of US grasses in which 14 tribes in 2 subfamilies were recognized (Hitchcock and Chase 1950). Hitchcock and Chase’s classification was used as a standard for treatments of North American grasses and grasslands and was followed by most US floras up until the 1980s.

Grasses are the dominant plants of grasslands (Chapter 1) and of agriculture. The systematics and evolution of this large, diverse, and phylogenetically advanced family are described in this chapter. Agrostology is the science of grass classification, and, as noted by Gould (1955), is essential to the study of grassland. However, the taxonomic treatment of the grasses has a fascinating history in itself as investigators moved from the use of primary morphological and anatomical characters to include cytogenetic, physiological, and molecular characters allowing the development of increasingly evolutionarily informative classifications (Stebbins 1956).

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