Download Individual Differences and Personality by Michael C. Ashton PDF

By Michael C. Ashton

Designed for top point undergraduate and graduate point scholars inquiring concerning the psychology of character and person adjustments, this textbook specializes in the character features and similar features that make every body specific. simple rules of character size are defined and the most important medical questions of character psychology are tested through a reader-friendly variety and numerous containers of attention-grabbing asides to maintain scholars' attention.

Unlike lower-level texts written from a ancient point of view that focus exclusively on thought, this textbook summarizes and integrates the modern learn on hand approximately person transformations.

*Emphasizes present examine and significant theoretical issues
*Provides built-in remedy of wide variety of themes relating to the character and person differences
*Explains an important thoughts in transparent and simple manner*Testbank of questions on hand to teachers through registration on http://textbooks.elsevier.com

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Extra info for Individual Differences and Personality

Sample text

If height and intelligence correlate 0, then knowing the person’ s height gives us no clue at all about that person’ s intelligence, and vice versa. When psychologists investigate the correlations between variables, they rarely f nd values of exactly +1, or −1, or even 0. 08. 20—to be weak or small. 50—are considered to be moderate in size. 50—are considered to be strong or large. But this classif cation does not really give a very clear idea or “feel” of what a correlation of a given size actually tells us.

If there is a criterion variable that is known to measure something neither similar nor opposite to what our scale is supposed to measure, then we would expect our scale to show weak correlations with that variable; in other words, the observed correlation, whether positive or negative, would be quite close to zero. If so, then this would support the discriminant validity of our scale. But if we instead found a strong correlation (either positive or negative), then this would be evidence against the discriminant validity of our scale; it would suggest that perhaps our scale was measuring some characteristic other than the one that we had intended it to measure.

If a person’s score is one standard deviation above the mean, then his or her score is higher than that of about 84% of people; if it is two standard deviations above, then it is higher than that of about 98% of people. Conversely, a score that is one standard deviation below the mean is higher than that of about 16% of people, and a score that is two standard deviations below is higher than that of about 2% of people. 5 16 31 50 69 84 93 98 >99 FIGURE 1-1. The normal distribution of scores. 1 For many psychological characteristics, about two-thirds of people are within one standard deviation above or below the mean, and about 95% of people are within two standard deviations above or below the mean.

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