By V. Hauff (auth.), Karl A. Stroetmann (eds.)
Technological growth is a significant factor chaping fiscal development. modern-day way of life is an immediate results of medical advances and technical swap long ago. given that out of control technological development has turn into amenace to our good being and will truly danger our survival, it is important to benefit to control technological development and direct cutting edge actions in this type of demeanour that either deepest wishes and social wishes playa dominant position in settling on the speed and path of technical swap. This calls for a greater knowing of the approaches of technical switch, in their influence on and interrelationships with fiscal and social advancements and of the capacity and measures wherein either contributors and governments can effect and direct technological development. To this finish, the Ninistry for examine and know-how of the Federal Republ ic of Germany and the nationwide technology origin of the Uni ted States of the United States invited a bunch of students, company managers and civil servants to a one week seminar on "Technolo gical Innovation". The seminar happened in April, 1976, in Bonn, Federal Republ ic of Germany. such a lot papers provided at this assembly have been in particular ready for the seminar. With this quantity, they're made on hand to a bigger viewers to extra stimulate dialogue not just between students drawn to innovation learn and expertise coverage questions but in addition between managers, union officers, civil ser vants and others without delay or not directly considering and stricken by technical change.
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Extra resources for Innovation, Economic Change and Technology Policies: Proceedings of a Seminar on Technological Innovation held in Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany, April 5 to 9, 1976
C. Freeman and Mr. J. Townsend (SPRU) and Dr. P. Spiller (Falk) for their significant contributions to this paper. +) Science Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex, Falmer, England. ++) Maurice Falk Institute for Economic Research in Israel, Jerusalem, Israel. 3 Rothwell/Teubal: SAPPHO Revisited 40 Introducti on The first part of this paper describes the methodology and scope of project SAPPHO, and briefly presents the SAPPHO results and conclusions. 1) In the second part of the paper the SAPPHO results are re-organised and analysed in the light of more recent innovation studies untertaken by workers at the falk Institute in Israel.
Organizational job structure/flexibility 23 17. Decision-making methods 22 18. Internal information flow/suggestions systems 21 19. Nature and extent of workers' participation in decision and policy-making 4 20. Pay systems and efficiency survey 5 21. Cooperation with customers, suppliers, consultants, etc. 22. Other factors 55 2 a) The number of replies (overlappings are possible) varies. As a rule, barely 200 were received. 2 Uhlmann: The Innovation Process in Industrialized Countries 34 In the ca se of big companies, the technical, economic and marketing prospects playa less dominating role in the decision-making phase than in the case of enterprises with less than 1,000 employees.
Discussion and decision-making concerning definite solutions After the solution(s) to a technological problem has/have been found it must be decided whether it/toey are to be put into effect. The discussions carried out in 84% of all the cases of innovation studied show no significant deviations in their development, regardless of the size of the enterprise in which they took place. In the enterprises concerned -whether smal1, medium-sized or big - the discussions held corresponded as a rule (77% of all the cases studied) to normal business practice, and those engaged on seeking solutions to problems had a say in decisions taken (88% of all the cases studied).