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By Robert Lahue (auth.), W. C. Corning, J. A. Dyal, A. O. D. Willows (eds.)

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Extra resources for Invertebrate Learning: Volume 2 Arthropods and Gastropod Mollusks

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In 16,000 trials administered to ten Ss, only 76 positive responses were observed, while 251 spontaneous responses were recorded. The CS apparently served to decrease the rate of response rather than increase it. Wasserman and Patton (1969) essentially employed the technique of Smith and Baker in an avoidance paradigm where tail movement during the US caused the shock to be omitted. As a modification of previous procedures, a harness was employed which caused the telson to float in the air, thus allowing potentiometric determinations of small movements either upor downward.

Arctosa variana (L. Koch) is probably the most studied of the species, which also include A. ), A. ), and Lycosa jluviatiers (Blackner) (Papi and Syrjamaki, 1963). For testing, single spiders were placed in a bowl filled partly with water which was divided into 16 sectors. When placed on the water, the spiders skated rapidly and attempted to escape but crashed into the walls of the bowl. Every collision was called an escape attempt, and the sector in which it occurred was recorded. A measure of the dispersion of n escape attempts 37 The Chelicerates during a 2-min test resulted from the calculation of the mean escape vector r and its length or (see, for example, Fig.

A third group was trained with 90° and 180° polarized light instead of a brightness difference as the discrimination cue. All groups received one trial daily for 20 days. A noxious stimulus (puff of air) was used to motivate the subjects, and running time and number of errors were recorded. After the acquisition period, three successive eight-trial response shifts were given. With respect to running time, the polarized cue group performed significantly better than either of the other groups; all groups decreased running time significantly over trials.

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