Download Lay Epistemics and Human Knowledge: Cognitive and by Arie W. Kruglanski PDF

By Arie W. Kruglanski

Whatever your purposes, sort reader, for analyzing those words,-what­ ever your premises approximately forewords, regardless of the epistemic motivation with that you technique them-Iet me urge you to show instantly to Kruglanski's first bankruptcy and read it. If any enthusiasm for sodal psy­ chology flows on your veins, you are going to definitely continue then to learn extra during this vital publication. It represents a few dozen years of Arie's proposal and of his and his colleagues' study. Its highbrow scope covers 50 years of sodal psychology-from attitudes and angle switch, to stability, disso­ nance, and a few of the different cognitive consistency theories, to causal attribution, and to present cognitive sodal psychology. Sodal psycholo­ gists have lately all started to depart the fireplace coziness of scribbling textbook catalogues of our box and to enterprise out into the chilly, outdoors event of detecting (or creating?) its underlying constitution. of those makes an attempt at supplying scope plus order, Kruglanski's needs to absolutely be the main formidable. For his is not any mere overarching idea, which, like a circus tent over a various set of sideshows, covers every thing yet does little to supply thematic constitution. particularly, Kruglanski attempts to supply a simple reorganization of our brooding about sodal psychology. to take advantage of his LEGO blocks metaphor for the amendment of information constructions, he makes an attempt to dismantle the present meeting of components of our box and reassemble them right into a easier and extra coherent configuration.

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Replicating the Effects of Epistemic Motivations on Primacy Effects. Freund et al. (1985) replicated the effects of epistemic motivations on primacy effects in impression formation with different operational definitions of the needs for nonspecific closure and the avoidance of closure. In one replication, the need for closure was operationalized via demands for unidimensional (hence, global and undifferentiated) versus multidimensional judgments, and the need to avoid closure (fear of invalidity) via potential costs to the target person (rather than to the subject) of subject's judgmental mistake.

In fact, in natural settings persons might only rarely have a singular epistemic goal and more typically might experience a mix of epistemic motivations, for example, of ultimately craving c10sure while temporarily avoiding it. In such a case, the relative magnitudes of epistemic forces operative at the moment might affect the extent, direction, and outcome of information gathering. Thus, it is important to understand the effects of each epistemic motivation separately, even if in natural circumstances it often comes blended with other motivations.

For instance, an existing schema may bias our memory toward the recall of schema-consistent information not originally contained in the acquisition set (Cantor and Mischel, 1977; Markus, Crane, Bernstein, and Siladi, 1982). Furthermore, existing schemata afford inferences (postdictions or predictions) about formerly unspedfied drcumstances (Markus, 1977). According to the present theory, going beyond the information given is an inevitable feature of all knowledge, whether lay or scientific. In asense, this is analytically implied by the respective meanings of the "evidence" and "hypothesis" concepts insofar as these are distinct from each other (in an if X then Y proposition X is distinct from Y): evidence A THEORY OF LAY EPISTEMICS 31 tor (or information) is a hypothesis (or ascherna); it is not tantamount to the hypothesis (or the schema).

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