Download Organic Chemistry of Nucleic Acids: Part B by N. K. Kochetkov, E. I. Budovskii (auth.), N. K. Kochetkov, PDF

By N. K. Kochetkov, E. I. Budovskii (auth.), N. K. Kochetkov, E. I. Budovskii (eds.)

The examine of nucleic acids is likely one of the such a lot speedily constructing fields in smooth technology. The exceedingly vital function of the nucleic acids as a key to the knowledge of the character of existence is mirrored within the huge, immense variety of released works at the topic, together with many amazing monographs and surveys. The pathways of syn­ thesis and metabolism of nucleic acid,s and the numerous and sundry organic services of those biopolymers are tested with the maximum element within the literature. approximately as a lot realization has been paid to the macromolecular chemistry of the nucleic acids: elucidation of the dimensions and form in their molecules, the research of the physicochemical houses in their suggestions, and the fitting how to be utilized in such examine. The surveys of the chemistry of nucleic acids that have been released to this point deal virtually completely with their synthesis and, specifically, with the factitious chemistry of monomers (nucleosides and nucleotides) ; much less recognition has been paid to the synthesis of poly­ nucleotides. there's one more hugely vital point of the chemistry of nucleic acids that is nonetheless within the formative level, the research of the reactivity of nucleic acid macromolecules and their parts. this may make an immense contribution to the deter­ mination of the constitution of those awesome biopolymers and to the proper figuring out in their organic functions.

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N"""N --+ A - + CH,-N=N L-+ + CH,+N. If the compound to be methylated has several reactive centres, the direction of the reaction will depend on the experimental conditions. If the compound to be methylated is the only proton donor in the medium, the action of diazomethane must lead to substitution of a methyl group for the hydrogen atom possessing the most acid properties; in the case of heterocyclic bases of the nucleic acids, this leads to substitution at the nitrogen atom linked to hydrogen which possesses the lowest electron denSity.

5 SUBSTITIJTION AND ADDITION REACTIONS IN HETEROCYCLIC RINGS end product of the reaction between pyrimidine derivatives and osmium tetroxide was not specially investigated in [108, 109], it can be considered that, at least in the first stages of the reaction, cis-5,6-dihydroxY-5,6-dihydropyrimidines (XXV) are formed. These are products of hydrolysis of the cyclic ester of osmic acid (XXIV): X: o o S 0 4 --+ HN o C11 3 --0, ~ __ N -90 H2 0 o . . Os~ --+ I H 0 R XXIV HN~~~3 ~N~OH o 7 H R xxv R denotes carbohydrate residue The compound 5,6-dihydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymidine was isolated and identified after treatment of thymidine with an aqueous solution of osmium tetroxide in the presence of barium perchlorate [110].

It is interesting to note that although reduction of adenosine diphosphate occurs smoothly, no reduction is observed either of inosine and guanosine diphosphates or of the readily reducible pyrimidine derivatives uridine diphosphate and cytidine diphosphate. The suggestion has been made that dihydro-derivatives of adenosine diphosphate of the type XLI are formed as intermediates during oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria [143]. Oligonucleotides and polynucleotides. Two reactions of reduction of the components.

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