By C. Oliver Kappe, Doris Dallinger, Shaun Murphree
With the beginner person in brain, this beginner's consultant explains the fundamentals in the back of microwave expertise, evaluates on hand tools and response modes, and gives sensible tricks for each eventuality. comprises 27 specified protocols for often-used reactions.From the contents: 1 Microwave Synthesis - An Introduction2 Microwave Theory3 gear Review4 Microwave Processing Techniques5 beginning With Microwave Chemistry6 Experimental Protocols6.1 basic Small-Scale Sealed-Vessel Microwave Processing6.2 response Optimization6.3 Library Generation6.4 response Scale-Up6.5 particular Processing options
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Extra info for Practical Microwave Synthesis for Organic Chemists: Strategies, Instruments, and Protocols
The oil-bath temperature) results in partial decomposition and does not improve the chemical yield of cyanuric acid signiﬁcantly. In contrast, very good yields of cyanuric acid (83%) can be obtained under volumetric microwave heating on a 2 g scale for 2 min without any urea or biuret side product being detected at the end of the reaction. 3) it should be stressed that these effects will only be seen on a comparatively small scale. The same concept of volumetric in situ heating by microwaves was also exploited by Larhed and coworkers in the context of scaling-up a biochemical process such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) .
Tierney), Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp. 1–22 (Chapter 1). R. P. (1991) Chemical Society Reviews, 20, 1–47. S. P. (1998) Chemical Society Reviews, 27, 213–223. , Bonrath, W. and Gum, A. (2004) Green Chemistry, 6, 128–141. N. B. , Sato, S. and Serpone, N. (2008) Organic Process Research & Development, 12, 257–263. 8 Neas, E. and Collins, M. M. B. Jassie), American Chemical Society, Washington, DC. J. A. R. J. J. A. 10 11 12 13 14 (1997) Chemical Physics Letters, 272, 376–382. Bogdal, D. and Prociak, A.
In the case of low-absorbing or nearly microwave transparent reaction mixtures the opposite phenomenon may occur. 9). 9). Heating of the microwave transparent solvent when using the standard glass vessel is the result of indirect heating by conduction and convection phenomena via the hot surface of the selfabsorbing glass. Since an IR sensor directly monitors the surface temperature of the glass (rather than of its contents), the observed effects are more pronounced using this type of monitoring method .