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By T. Hopf

Russia hasn't ever been in a position to break out its courting with Europe, or Europe with Russia. Geography and heritage have conspired to lead them to either acquaintances and unavoidable elements in each one other’s day-by-day lives. From the early 1700s till the cave in of the Soviet Union in 1991, Europe and Moscow either depended on fabric strength to stability opposed to any threats rising from East and West. extra lately, Europe and the ecu have followed a unique approach: make Russia non-threatening by way of making it eu, like “us.” in the meantime, Russia’s resistance to Europe’s assimilationist challenge is more and more strong, fuelled by means of strength exports to Europe and the area. participants to this quantity combat with the query of no matter if the eu undertaking is possible, fascinating, or perhaps ethical.



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It should be stressed that the emergence of Westphalian sovereignty did not reflect any attempt to rationally devise a political order in Europe, but was a product of a very messy international situation: more an act of desperation at the end of a war that had consumed nearly one-third of the warring states’ population, the peace can be seen as seeking to assure the very survival of the nascent European international society more than anything else (Rudolph 2005, 4). As such, after Westphalia, the emerging normative order in Europe rested on the dual assumption that the principle of cuius regio, eius religio (“whose rule, his religion”) would form the cornerstone of the postwar religious settlement, and that every state belonging to the European international society should have an absolute ruler who would act as the guardian of that settlement in his respective kingdom (Barkin 1998, 236–37; see also Rudolph 2005, 4).

When combined with the dramatic losses and blunders during the World War I, it is no wonder that Tsarist Russia collapsed under these multitude strains on its constitution, paving the way for the communist period in Russian history. Nationalism between the World Wars The dramatic change within Russia coincided with an equally tangible change in the constitution of the European international society. With the additional collapse of Wilhelmine Germany and of Austria-Hungary in 1918, the days of empires were through, and the monarchialism of the congress system was finally replaced with nationalism as the constitutive principle for sovereignty.

The first relates to the question of degree of homogeneity in the European international society. Fred Halliday has sought to uncover how the international society in effect affects and constrains its members by homogenizing them: in addition to showing restraint in intervening with the affairs of other states, there is an additional and much more profound expectation of convergence and similitude in domestic arrangements as A Norm-Maker or a Norm-Taker? ● 39 well (Halliday 1994, 112; for a fuller discussion, see chapters 5 and 10 in his book).

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