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By Bobo Lo

This ebook examines the transformation of Soviet exertions ideology over the past decade of the USSR, and its severe courting to the cave in of the Soviet country. the writer makes a speciality of regime makes an attempt to restore Soviet fiscal functionality at the foundation of elevated exertions productiveness, and indicates how their failure had foreseen and catastrophic results for the legitimacy of the nation. faraway from reinvigorating techniques concerning the function and nature of work in Soviet society, the regime succeeded merely in demonstrating its personal impotence and unsustainability.

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1±2) ± represented the most determined attempt yet to deal with the problem of the `overeducated-undertrained' syndrome (Connor, 1991, p. 84). The development of a comprehensive network of professional±technical schools ( professionalno-tekhnicheskoe uchilishche ± PTU) was directed specifically at increasing the supply of skilled labour relative to the number of university graduates. Betterdirected education was seen as a way of compensating for diminishing labour resources (Chizhova, 1983, p. 64), while some observers linked a better-trained, more highly skilled workforce to the success of laboursaving measures such as sovmeshchenie (Blyakhman and Zlotnitskaya, 1984, p.

Contrary to the case under capitalism where workers were `oppressed' by the bosses in the latter's quest to maximize surplus value,2 the socialist system ensured that Soviet workers enjoyed the `freedom from exploitation' that was the `basic condition' of the individual's `genuine freedom' (Osnovy zakonodateltsva . . o trude', Pravda, 17 July 1970, p. 1). 3 Although `individual labour activity' (individualnaya trudovaya deyatelnost) was permitted under Article 17 of the Constitution (Konstitutsiya SSSR .

One consequence of the Soviet Union's technological backwardness was the exceptionally high proportion ± 40 per cent ± of the workforce engaged in manual labour (Bordukov, 1983, p. 2). According to Andropov (1983, p. 16), the `large number of physically heavy, unattractive, routine jobs, the slow rate of their mechanization, let alone automatization' was the reason why Marx's `first law on the basis of collective production, the law of economizing working time,' had not yet been fully implemented.

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