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By Leon Trotsky

With the revolution of 1917, the Russian humans reworked their kingdom right into a workers' republic—but under a decade later, Stalin and his bureaucrats seized strength, resulting in the state's corruption and supreme decay. during this critique of Stalinism from the Marxist perspective, Trotsky offers a brilliantly prescient research of the inevitable cave in of the Soviet Union that finds the roots of the region's present unrest.

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23–4, 54–5 Chernyshevsky, N. 43–4 Conrad, J. 7–8 critical realism 52–4 Dickens, C. 35–6 Dobrolyubov, N. S. 14–16, 17 Engels, F. 1, 9, 16, 29, 45–8, 49, 68–9, 74 expressionism 25–6 Fischer, E. 17 forces of production 4–5, 61 Formalism 23, 50 Fox, R. 23 genetic structuralism 32–4 Goldmann, L. 32–4, 35, 75 Gorky, M.

Lukács, in contrast, conjures up a Valhalla of great ‘characters’ from nineteenth-century literature; but perhaps, Brecht speculates, that whole conception of ‘character’ belongs to a certain historical set of social relations and will not survive it. We should be searching for radically different modes of characterization: socialism forms a different kind of individual, and will demand a different form of art to realize it. This is not to say that Brecht is abandoning the concept of realism. ’ Realism for Brecht is less a specific literary style or genre, ‘a mere question of form’, than a kind of art which discovers social laws and developments, and unmasks prevailing ideologies by Marxism and literary criticism 34 adopting the standpoint of the class which offers the broadest solution to social problems.

Two early works were The Soul and Its Forms (1911), and The Theory of the Novel (1920). He joined the Communist party in 1918 and became commissar for education in the short-lived Hungarian Soviet Republic, escaping to Austria when it fell. In 1923 he produced his major theoretical work, History and Class Consciousness, which was condemned as idealist by the Comintern. When Hitler came to power he emigrated to Moscow, devoting his time to literary studies; from this period date Studies in European Realism (London, 1972) and The Historical Novel (London, 1962).

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