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By Jennifer Leigh McGarrigle

The humanities and sciences have developed essentially via specialization and broadening of scope. Stepping open air of one’s validated self-discipline, despite the fact that, consists of a risk of "shallowness," no matter if the first problem used to be a "deep" integration challenge. All too frequently, present methods of defining educational disciplines and fields of analysis fail to do justice to new approaches—a challenge this quantity tackles because it debates the potential futures of scholarship and academia.

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As referred to in the previous section, there is clear evidence of minority ethnic groups advancing in the housing market. This was reflected by evidence from the 1991 Census of a small-scale local de-concentration of minority ethnic groups. Ratcliffe (1996) presented evidence of more affluent members of the Black Caribbean and Indian groups relocating outward from their traditional clusters. Similarly, local authority reports in Scotland show some dispersal of minority ethnic groups to the suburbs (Glasgow City Council 2000).

Indians are well represented in professional or managerial positions; this has been correlated with signs of dispersal from areas of traditional settlement to more mixed neighbourhoods and suburban areas. Still, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis are significantly under-represented in both skilled manual jobs and in professional occupations. Four-fifths of Pakistanis and Bangladeshis have incomes below or at the national average, in comparison to a quarter of whites (Strategy Unit 2003). Recent work on intergenerational social mobility by Platt (2005) reveals positive transitions between the social class of parents and their children to be highly differentiated according to ethnic group.

Those favouring choice based explanations argue that individual actors make informed or rational choices about where they want to live, normally related to aspects of their ethnic and cultural backgrounds. More recently, as a sub set to the choice argument, some contemporary debates have focused on the so-called separatist tendencies of particular minority ethnic groups in an attempt to preserve social, ethnic or religious identities contrary to those of the mainstream. This will be discussed in more detail later in the chapter.

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